Creativity in photography consists not only in the vision of frame, but also in the ability to realise ideas technically. And the beginning of all is ability to control the exposure on the photo. A bit of theory about what is exposure and what it consists of.

Exposure is the amount of light entering the camera's matrix over a certain period of time.
The main Exposure settings: Shutter speed, Aperture, and ISO sensitivity.
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Shutter speed

Shutter speed is the interval of time in the camera settings for which the camera shutter opens. At that moment when the shutter opens and closes a certain amount of light enters the photosensitive matrix of a digital or film camera. The longer the shutter is opened, the more light passes. Time here is measured in hundredths and thousandths of a second.

The longer the shutter is opened and the higher the photosensitivity, the worse the picture's quality. So-called "noise" or grain appears. But in certain style of photography it can be a plus because gives the picture the effect of art and antiquity (as in photography of Antoine D'Agatha).

Longer shutter speed - lighter the image. Moreover, even for such a short period of time as 1/100 of a second, the objects become shifted. This is especially noticeable in the case of shooting dynamic processes. For example, you can photography a moving car only at ultra-short shutter speeds. Or you can "hold" the lens in the direction of movement of the object while pressing the shutter button. Such "wiring" will lead to a sharp image of the object and a blurry background. Also, setting the camera on a tripod and setting the shutter speed to few minutes will allow you take a picture of the night sky.

By the way. Maybe you saw old photographs of cars with oval wheels? :)
In first cameras the speed of the central shutters was low that cameras had moving shutters. Therefore, in the pictures of riding cars the wheels were oval. But is wasn't perceived as a defect, audience liked this effect that emphasizes the swiftness of the vehicle. That is why subsequently in comic books often depicted cars with oval wheels.


The aperture is an adjustable hole in the lens through which light passes in. It restricts the flow of light entering the camera. The photographer himself adjusts the measure of opening and closing the aperture.

The smaller the aperture, the stronger the blur. Conversely, at high amount of aperture, sharpness will be higher. All lenses have a measure of maximum opened aperture value. It is measured in relative units: f1,2; f1.4; f1.8; f2,2 and so on. The smaller the number, the larger the hole and the faster the lens. Accordingly, this lens can let in more light, which means that you can shoot even in low light conditions.

Even a small difference in the number of measure of maximum opened aperture is noticeable in the cost of lenses with other identical characteristics. For example, a 50mm lens with f1.4 is one and a half times more expensive than lens with f1.8.
Photosensitivity (ISO)

ISO is a number indicating the photosensitivity of the camera matrix, this parameter can be changed manually. The higher the ISO, the more light will get on the matrix. The practical value of this parameter in having more shooting options during different light conditions. For example, you can increase the ISO value to several thousand units and shoot in the evening without a flash (But remember the noise that will appear!)

Depending on the level of light in the place of shooting, the following ranges of values are usually used: 100-200 ISO - sunny day, 200-400 - in the shade or cloudy weather, 400-800 - indoors, more than 1000 - low light.

Author Anna Laza
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